Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit. Which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit known as a peppercorn when dried is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red when fully mature and like all drupes contains a single seed.Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described simply as pepper or more precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit). Green pepper (dried unripe fruit) and white pepper (unripe fruit seeds).
Black pepper is native to south India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Currently Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper. Producing 34% of the world's Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.Dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavor and as a medicine. Black pepper is the world's most traded spice. It is one of the most common spices added to European cuisine and its descendants.
The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine, not to be confused with the capsaicin that gives fleshy peppers theirs.The drupes are dried in the sun or by machine for several days. During which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer.
Once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn. On some estates, the berries are separated from the stem by hand and then sun-dried without the boiling process.
Once the peppercorns are dried, pepper spirit & oil can be extracted from the berries by crushing them.Pepper spirit is used in many medicinal and beauty products. Pepper oil is also used as an ayurvedic massage oil and used in certain beauty and herbal treatments.
The pepper plant is a perennial woody vine growing up to 4 metres (13 ft) in height on supporting trees, poles, or trellises. It is a spreading vine, rooting readily where trailing stems touch the ground.
The leaves are alternate, entire, 5 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm across. The flowers are small, produced on pendulous spikes 4 to 8 cm long at the leaf nodes, the spikes lengthening up to 7 to 15 cm as the fruit matures.
The roots are covered in leaf mulch and manure and the shoots are trimmed twice a year.On dry soils the young plants require watering every other day during the dry season for the first three years.
The plants bear fruit from the fourth or fifth year, and typically continue to bear fruit for seven years. The cuttings are usually cultivars, selected both for yield and quality of fruit.
The oil of Black Pepper is radiant spicy citrus. Gives excellent effect in Men’s fragrances and also very useful for twisting Citrus and Aldehydic notes. It somehow smooths the chemicalish effect of Aldehydes.
However nowadays perfumers all over the world prefer Pink Pepper oil , which is odourwise much superior. But for Flavour purposes Black Pepper has more punch and bite.